Takāful Risk Fund and Surplus Management: Analytics for Social Equity?


An important and significant feature of Takāful Model is the proper administration and effective management of risk fund and the takāful surplus distribution. Unlike conventional insurance where all premiums paid are exchanged in consideration for underwriting risk pool assumed by the insurance company in the form of risk transfer, Takāful contribution is based on the principle of mutual trust, mutual risk pooling, and mutual benefit based on (ta’aun) cooperation and the social contract of tabarru’. The tabarru’ contribution to the risk fund exemplifies the social nature of the risk fund. Technically the nature of this mutual risk fund is based on social contribution intended to indemnify the participants as policyholders against peril arising from hazard. However, the issue of both moral and morale hazard may also arise due to the lack of policy and strategy in terms of governance and transparency of the risk fund. This article attempts to critically review the current takāful surplus management of selected takāful operator’s model based on Shariah principles, rulings, and requirements; and the regulatory guidelines and policy documents. It will highlight the issue(s) of social equity among the shareholders, takāful operators, and policyholders and present the analytics of takāful surplus based on the different takāful operating models as specified by the Takāful Operating Framework. It will also examine the consequences of takāful surplus management reporting practices and the implications of the adoption of relevant international financial reporting standards. Finally, this article will attempt to articulate the analytics for social equity in Takāful.